By now, most of us have heard of BitCoin in some context, maybe from your tech-savvy friend or the news story about the guy who lost $127 million USD of the crypto-currency after accidentally throwing his hard drive in the garbage.
Public sector authorities are realizing that many times they are not ready to implement projects as P3s. They need more time to define their objectives and goals for the project, properly define the scope and phasing, and understand and fairly allocate risks between the public and private sectors.
As a result, a number of agencies are opting for or at least considering a different approach – engaging private-sector players earlier at a point more upstream in the planning process through what is known as a pre-development agreement (PDA).
In our experience, the best way to mature innovative solutions is to prototype them in a physical environment that closely reflects job site conditions, essentially a lab for designers and builders. Doing so results in a better understanding of integration complexity, the capabilities of the technology, and real versus theoretical benefit discrepancies, as well as the implications of how solutions might be deployed and scaled.
In disaster-prone areas, elevated evacuation shelters can be an integral part of a national or local disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategy and programs. They enable vulnerable communities to get to safety at the first warning of an incoming tsunami.
This paper sheds light on the economics, technology/design features, execution facets, and operational flexibility of Sabine Pass LNG project, as well as provides some detailed on the startup and commissioning aspects of the first two trains.